Recommended Bibliography

Cox, Christopher, and Daniel Warner, Editors. Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum, 2004.
In “Improvised Music after 1950: Afrological and Eurological Perspectives” and “Algorythms: Erasures and the Art of Memory,” George E. Lewis discusses, from a musical standpoint, of Afrological improvisation’s importance of personal narrative, of telling one’s own story, with part of that aspect being the development of one’s own sound. “Notions of personhood,” Lewis writes, “are transmitted via sounds, and sounds become signs for deeper levels of meaning, beyond pitches and intervals.” Saxophonist Yusef Lateef breaks it down in simple terms: “The sound of the improvisation seems to tell us what kind of person is improvising. We feel that we can hear the character or personality in the way the musician improvises.”

Abalos, Inaki. The Good Life: A Guided Visit to the Houses of Modernity. New York: Gilli, 2001.
An imaginative tour of houses and the ideals that brought them about, such as Heidegger's existentilalist house of refuge and Jacques Tati's positivist house depicted in his comedic, social commentaries on Mid-Century modernism.

Auner, Joseph (Editor). Postmodern Music - Postmodern Thought. Routledge, 2001
A common conception of architecture is that it consists solely of material artefacts, i.e., a built environment where the physical shapes constitute static values. This is partially true, but architecture is just as much a question of immateriality as well as acquired experience. Such approach implies a dynamic understanding of architecture as a reservoir that gives the shape of the activities within it. The architectural conception is thus a matter of the context of place, where criteria such as social pattern of behaviour, cultural-/aesthetical expressions and spatial-/temporal understanding are basic functions. The sound environment represents one fundamental dimension of architecture in the sense that sounds deal with our interpretation and understanding of built space, and when it comes to architectural research the sonic environment is a design problem that one has to consider. Concerning spatial and temporal criteria, sounds bring qualitative information regarding the territory of place, orientation (we act and respond to the given sonic information) and communication etc. The sonic interpretation is necessary since it helps us to understand the context of place.

Baal-Teshuva, Jacob. Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Taschen Press, 2001.
Published four years before the Central Park Gates Project was realized, this catalogue gives an overview of the proposal that promised to contrast the grid of Manhattan with paths free flowing fabric for visitors to enjoy.

Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Space. Beacon Press, 1964.
This seminal book on architecture examines the distinct psychology of spaces—attics, cellars, and forests, and how they inspire us to daydream. It is helpful in developing a psychogeography of where and how we live.

Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Reverie. Beacon Press, 1971.
Bachelard argues that all imagination is ultimately a form of idealization.

Basquiat, Jean-Michel. Works. Exhibition. The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York, 2005.
As a teenager growing up in New York, I was a witness to how Basquiat transformed the landscape of Lower East Side in the early 1980s, interacting with architecture and space directly in ‘real time.’ The way work is put out into the world is a crucial part of the artistic vision – the notion of how it will be experienced must be taken into account when making it, because the method of delivery is a partner in getting the message across. Basquiat’s work simply makes no sense in a museum/gallery setting— there is a (pre)tension that is born of removing it from its intended context. The cultural (re)placement of Basquiat’s art lead me to think about the site(s) of my own work, and how it might be experienced outside the traditional, expected settings.

Basho. Back Roads to Far Towns: Basho’s Travel Journal. White Pine Press, 2004.
This journal is a poetic sequence of the later travels of Japan’s most famed haiku writer.

Bayes, Kenneth. Living Architecture. Anthroposophic Press, 1994.
Rudolf Steiner has given us a biography of architecture—as a living being, from its birth at the beginning of history until today, and with indications for the future. We see it with its own rhythms and patterns as with a human life on earth. In Steiner's cosmology, architecture has reached, in terms of a human lifespan, the age and the energy of the early thirties. So it is not a final but an interim biography, a progress report.

Boym, Svetlana. The Future of Nostalgia, Perseus Books, 2001.
This text alternates between critical reflection and storytelling, “hoping to grasp the rhythm of longing, its enticements and entrapments"; Boym examines the phenomena she refers to as "hypochondria of the heart," the human ability to mourn the passing of times and events of which they were never a part to begin with.

Cage, John. Writer, New York: Cooper Square Press, 2000.
Both Thoreau and Emerson were important to Cage, and his activism, though subtle, is evident in the Transcendentalist tradition. Cage’s hope was to encourage performing scholars to express through interdisciplinary practice rather than depend on a singular discipline or technique.

Chion, Michel. The Voice in Cinema. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
This book begins with a comparison of our earliest experiences with seeing, hearing, and touching—ripe material to mine in relation to composing music for architectural spaces. Synchronization of sight and sound, which naturally does not exist in radio, can be the glory or the curse of cinema. If overused, a string of images relentlessly chained to literal sound has the tyrannical power to strangle the very things it is trying to represent, stifling the imagination of the audience in the bargain. Yet the accommodating technology of cinema gives us the ability to loosen those chains and to re-associate the film’s images with other, carefully-chosen sounds which at first hearing may be “wrong” in the literal sense, but which can offer instead richly descriptive sonic metaphors.

Christov-Bakargiev, Carolyn and Alanna Heiss. Janet Cardiff: A Survey of Works, Including Collaborations with George Bures Miller, P.S. 1 MoMA, 2001.
Cardiff’s soundwalk scripts shift from one linguistic register to another, between fact and fiction. They include instructions, conceptual descriptions of what you “see” or imagine seeing, descriptions of feelings, narration of memories, dialogues—with other characters—and with the listener. I found a profound blending of descriptions of the interior landscape and the perceptual field outside, as in reverie. She addresses the constant need to negotiate between presence and loss of self, memory and experience, sensation and imagination.

Collective Black Artists. The Business of Making Music in 1970s New York. 22 February 2006. New School University, NY.
The CBA was formed in 1970 to help Black artists navigate and manage the business and performance aspects of their careers at a time when they were disenfranchised form the mainstream operations of clubs, recording studios, orchestras, an Broadway shows. These musicians created a structure that has become the template for contemporary groups.

Cox, Christopher and Daniel Warner (Ed.) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music, New York: Continuum Books, 2005
This book includes writing by Ornette Coleman, Jacques Attali, Simon Reynolds, Pauline Oliveros, Paul D. Miller, John Zorn, and Karlheinz Stockhausen on topics such as "Modes of Listening," "Minimalisms," and "DJ Culture." Essays are easily placed within musical, historical, and conceptual contexts, mapping the aural and discursive terrain of contemporary/vanguard music. Tracing the genealogy of current musical practices and theoretical concerns, drawing lines of connection between recent musical production and earlier moments of sonic experimentation.

Davis, Richard. The Complete Guide to Film Scoring. Boston: Berklee Press, 2000.
For music editing, I referred to the "Timing Notes" section of this text. Davis’ directive is to make timing notes for every cue to correspond with the scenes. These notes would be used to find exact synchronization moments, as well as appropriate cue tempos.

Demitrios, Eames. An Eames Primer. Los Angeles: Universe Publishing, 2002.
Having freedom from commercial pressures, the husband-and-wife team of Charles and Ray Eames made design accessible to the masses. Their collective working methodology was identifying needs, creating solutions, and maintaining beautiful functionality with everyday objects.

Eames, Charles and Ray. The Films of Charles and Ray Eames, Vols. 2 and 5, 1995.
In these visual essays, the Eameses applied the structure and discipline of architecture to filmmaking. These short pieces, accompanied by scores written by composer Elmer Bernstein, convey ideas and models for proposed environments, especially furniture which brings a ‘human scale’ to architecture.

Eno, Brian. Music for Airports. Recording. Astralwerks, 1978.
This minimalist and deeply moving work was created to alleviate anxiety often experienced in airports.

Gatje, Robert F. and I. M. Pei. Marcel Breuer: A Memoir. Monacelli, 2000.
This personal and professional narrative is well-incorporated with an annotated catalogue of Breuer’s buildings and processes.

Giovanni, Nikki. The Way I Feel. Recording. Collectables, 1995.
Her name loomed in the collective consciousness during my upbringing in 1970s New York. A forthright poet and eloquent speaker with a “take-no-prisoners” approach to recital, Giovanni mesmerized me through her written words. Here, Giovanni spoken word are accompanied by a soulful orchestra whose ambience provides notable cues to the cadence of the poets’ voice.

Girard, Francois. Dir. Thirty-two Short Films About Glenn Gould. DVD. 1993.
In this collection of shorts, Canadian pianist/composer Gould is portrayed in different stages of his life and career: 32 impressionistic looks presented as a variety of “snapshots” my favourite being "Pills,” a study of close-ups of all the various medicines resident in the musician's bathroom cabinet, set to his music.

Glass, Philip. Einstein on the Beach. Recording. 1979.

Grosz, Elizabeth. Architecture from the Outside: Essays on Virtual and Real Space MIT Press, 2001.
Philosopher Elizabeth Grosz explores the ways in which two disciplines that are fundamentally outside each another--architecture and philosophy--can meet in a third space to interact free of their internal constraints. "Outside" also refers to those whose voices are not usually heard in architectural discourse but who inhabit its space--the destitute, the homeless, the sick, and the dying, as well as women and minorities. Grosz asks how we can understand space differently in order to structure and inhabit our living arrangements accordingly. Two themes run throughout the book: temporal flow and sexual specificity. Grosz argues that time, change, and emergence, traditionally viewed as outside the concerns of space, must become more integral to the processes of design and construction. She also argues against architecture's historical indifference to sexual specificity, asking what the existence of (at least) two sexes has to do with how we understand and experience space. Drawing on the work of such philosophers as Henri Bergson, Roger Caillois, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Derrida, Luce Irigaray, and Jacques Lacan, Grosz raises abstract but nonformalistic questions about space, inhabitation, and building. The essays propose philosophical experiments to render space and building more mobile and dynamic. Grosz’s central argument throughout is that architecture, geography, and urban planning have tended to neglect or ignore temporality or to reduce it to the measurable and the calculable, that is, to space. Her argument is that it is central to the future of architecture that the question of time, change and emergence become more integral to the process of design and construction. I sought out the answers to what philosophy can bring to architectural discourse and its practice (of design, building, cost analysis); and what architecture could bring to philosophical discourse and its practices (of reasoning, arguing and framing questions).

Henderson, Sanya Shoilevska. Alex North, Film Composer, McFarland & Company, 2003.
This two-part tome is stock with musical analyses and notated examples including Spartacus (1960), and A Streetcar Named Desire (1951). This book, emerging out of Henderson’s doctoral thesis, tells of this 40-year old “late bloomer” in the film music industry, and gives a solid glimpse into his early beginnings: travels, musical training, and close family relations. The second half is a more challenging read, perhaps not for trained musicologists, and would not be interesting to investigate from a layman’s perspective had it not been for the more engaging aspects of the first half. Because this text takes on a more academic approach than a book like The Score, it reads more like a dissertation than an entertainment bio. The rich biographical details, photographic images, and reproduced artefacts included that give this work a warm, humanistic quality.

Jamal, Ahmad. Performance. The Staller Center, 26 February 2005 , Stonybrook, NY Susan Werner. Performance. The Staller Center, February 2005 , Stonybrook, NY.
It is amusing to think of the stereotypes that swirl through our heads when an artist who we’ve attempted to peg quietly slips into another cloak, so as not to leave our collective consciousness, but to stay awhile and parade off what we never would have guessed they wear so well. Both Jamal and Werner work with a trio, and consider their ensembles an “orchestra.” I think it is innovative, and especially for artists like myself who move between variable degrees of confidence to the point of not finishing a piece. The alternative these two artists present is one in which you can re-examine your work by allowing your new aesthetics to be the work-in-progress themselves, and being aware that you can go back to the style you’ve nurtured and have been familiar with (as well as your audience) after you’ve stretched your creative boundaries a bit. Jamal revisited his classic collection, this time employing new contrary motion lines in and out of chordal substitutions. I could appreciate Werner’s departure to a more romantic style of writing—a trigger, perhaps to my own return to the written word in music. I could relate (because of the instrumental nature of my recent work) to Jamal because he is, in his own words, “a wordless storyteller, someone who cares about the dynamics of music...Musical dynamics are human dynamics."

Jordan, June. Some of Us Did Not Die. Basic Civitas, 2003.
In her heartbreaking essay “Letter to R. Buckminster Fuller,” Jordan foreshadows the fate of a proposed architectural redesign of Harlem with the famed architect.  Her efforts go undocumented in the final publication in an Esquire Magazine article.

Koren, Leonard. Wabi-Sabi for Artists, Designers, Poets and Philosophers.
Wabi-sabi is a Japanese aesthetic that is the beauty of things imperfect, unconventional and incomplete. According to its laws, things become more evocative, the closer they become to non-existence.

Lai, Francis. A Man and A Woman. Recording. 1966.

LaBelle, Brandon. Site Specific Sound. Frankfurt, Germany: Errant Bodies, 2004

Labelle, Brandon. Site of Sound: of Architecture and the Ear

Lamorrisse, Albert, dir. The Red Balloon. 1959. Videocassette. Montesouris Films.
This timeless piece of visual storytelling where there is no dialogue, is highly effective by employing the use of sound. For an improvisational-to-score assignment in my Soundscapes/Film Scoring workshop (The Student Television Arts Company), I asked my students to pay close attention, while performing synchronously to the scene, to the early conflicts, finding a way to accentuate them as an opportunity to unpack the rich potential to include the darker, unexpected imagery.

Li, Don. Tonus-Music. Performance. USM Modular. 6 October 2005.
Composer, clarenetist and creator of the concept, Tonus-Music performed his composition “Part 64.” This piece for drums, bass, electronics and clarinet transcends the usual representation of groove music.

Lin, Maya. Boundaries. Simon & Schuster, 2001.
As the title suggests, Lin inhabits the boundaries between art and architecture, inside and outside, and nature and urban. Her works and process are harmoniously descriptive. Lin gives the impression of solitude through the results of her finished works, yet expresses the importance of collaboration to see her work to its completion.

Lopes-Silva, Denilson. Transnational Soundscapes: Ambient Music and The New Bossa Nova. Lecture. 17 October 2005. The Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS) at NYU
Starting with a theoretical development of the category of landscape, from philosophy to culture, from painting to music, Silva focused on the dialogue between ambient music as understood in pop culture by Brian Eno and recent readings of Bossa Nova by Suba and Bebel Gilberto. His objective is to build a soundscape based on delicateness and lightness inside electronic music in a comparative and transnational perspective.

Lovegrove, Keith. Airline: Identity, Design and Culture. Te Neues Publishing, 2000.
This visual essay takes the reader on an evolutionary tour of airline design and its memorable accoutrements.

Martin, Elizabeth. Ed. Architecture as a Translation of Music. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994.
Martin draws closely on the work of composer John Cage, with whom she corresponded at length, and her study brings together ten projects by musicians and architects that explore the language, philosophy and character of both disciplines. The text contains analytical drawings, diagrams, and models of the translation of minimalist music theory into built form. Martin also looks at the Vitruvius Program, a five-week experimental workshop for school children to explore spatial ideas of sound, noise, acoustics, melody, and harmony, and construction techniques found in the design of musical instruments. Integral to this program is the Music Animation Machine, an animation software that conveys the information about pitch, timing, and instrumentation in traditional musical notation in a way that can be grasped without musical training. By bringing forward the resonances and overhearing the varied mutations of visual sound and acoustical space imagined and installed, Martin gives sense to the numerous ways music and architecture have mutated and challenged one another, and looks to a future of further reinvention. “Consider the transformation in our ability to represent a musical event.” Notes Martin. The changes in music have rendered traditional music theory obsolete because it can no longer address the vast majority of accessible sound. Image processing and computer graphics have had the same kind of changes into the visual world. With transformation of dimension, physical hearing in our own bodies can be thought of as dialogue between the inside and the outside. Architecture is compared to this in the way connecting the outside to the inside. The façade can be thought of internal and external space. The façade also uses a mathematical pattern of dimension analysis and the “physically calculated behaviour of light and its reflection, both of which aid in translating a subjective image into architecture.”

Miller, Paul D. Rhythm Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.
The conceptual artist Paul Miller, A.K.A. Dj Spooky that Subliminal Kid, delivers a manifesto for rhythm science—the creation of art from the flow of patterns in sound and culture, navigating the innumerable ways to arrange the mix of cultural ideas and objects that bombard us, using technology and art to create something new and expressive and endlessly variable. Miller encourages us to make music and tracks invoked or inspired by absurd or naturalist landscapes. He incites us (“What does tons and tons of air pressure moving in the atmosphere sound like? Make music that acts a metaphor for that kind of immersion or density.") Miller describes how he “remixed” Marcel Duchamp by taking his material written on music, flipping it into a DJ mix of his visual material, all with Duchamp rhyming. Tracing the genealogy of rhythm science, Miller cites sources and influences as varied as Ralph Waldo Emerson ("all minds quote"), Grandmaster Flash, and W. E. B Dubois.

Miller, Paul D. In Gertrude’s Salon. Whitney Museum. 7 October 2005
Remix artist DJ Spooky recasted works by composers of the International Composers’ Guild, which under the aegis of Whitney founder Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, brought modernism to the 1920s music scene.

Morricone, Ennio. Crimes and Dissonance. Recording. 2005.
These tight, concentrated workouts for freeform percussion and guitars that pull relentlessly at the listener’s nerve endings, offer remarkable points of departure for film composer Morricone, as they hint at new areas of experimentation. Scores are concerned with flight and pursuit (elements of my composition, Greene) and incorporate wayward basslines, orchestral piano stabs and eerie, wordless vocals. Morricone is best known for his definitive soundtrack for Once Upon a Time in the West, a score that aurally conjures up the 1840’s American “Wild West.”

Morricone, Ennio. Morricine 2000. Recording.
Bernstein, Elmer. Music for the Films of Charles and Ray Eames.  Recording.
Connell, Andy. The Knickerman. Recording.
These soundtracks were used as a musical reference for my film and score project, Habitat 67. Like Morricone, Connell didn't conceive his Knickerman score as something to play over the picture but as growing organically from the fabric of the movie. Each come from a background of experimental music which mingled real sounds together with musical sounds. Morricone (The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, The Mission, Days of Heaven, Malena), in particular, uses realistic sounds partly to give a kind of nostalgia that the film had to convey. He also used these sounds to provoke a psychological response and holds a strong belief in experimental and avant- garde music. The Eames’ films served as a design statement, comment on modern society, and a spectacular understanding of scale. What I find most alluring about one film in particular, Toccata for Toy Trains, (1957) is that the brief narrative invests the entire film with a powerful subtext. The film’s soundtrack conveys a simple pleasure we have of reliving our childhood fantasies. Elmer Bernstein's music, composed in response to the scenario was orchestrated with small, interesting combinations of instruments. For House: After Five Years of Living (1955), Bernstein scored each movement to represent a different area of the house. Working closely with the Eameses to make a philosophical point, Bernstein agreed that the music should be accessible and reflect an affectionate humor. Collaboratively, the composer and the designers wanted to the film and the music to reveal the warmth, beauty and functionality of their modern home.

Naipaul, V.S. Finding the Center. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.
A great starting point for me, in terms of looking at the familial foundations established by my parents years before my own existence, and how they would later influence me in my search for a satisfying adult life. Naipaul, in the two personal narratives that make up this book, writes of looking at his homeland through the lens of a native Trinidadian who documents the account of his literary beginnings, and “finding the center”, or narrative binding to and autobiographical story by gathering together all the strands of his background, including family life, travel, and his political-cultural intent in his writings.

O’Brien, Jeffrey.   Sonata for Jukebox: Pop Music, Memory, and the Imagined Life. Counterpoint Press, 2004.
An exciting narrative that invites the reader on a reminiscent journey through 20th century popular music and discusses how what we listen to incorporates into our personal history.

Pascoe, David. Airspaces. Reaktion Books – Topographics, 2001.
An account of the airport as a symbol of modernity through the discussion of literature, film, and architectural theory.

Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Wiley and Sons, 1996.
This work is a well-integrated discussion on how all of our senses are responsible for how we experience a building. The essay is formed around the Western notion of occularcentrism, while fairly giving the other aspects of interaction their due.

Pawson, John. Themes and Projects. Phaidon Press, 2002.
This book explores the underlying themes of Pawson's work and documents his key projects, ranging from residential to commercial spaces. The work is set in context by a selection of essays written by his colleagues. Pawson used his own family house as an opportunity to explore how domestic architecture can be designed around the key rituals– eating, sleeping, bathing–which will take place within it. The result is a house in which everything has been considered, reduced, simplified, but one where, crucially, the process of paring down has uncovered, rather than removed, meaning.

Reich, Steve. You Are. Recording. Nonesuch Records, 2005.
One of my least favourite Reich works, but a lovely distillation of his earlier minimalist compositions set to selected Wittgenstein philosophies. I used this for my listening program prior to the creation of Montcalm. I was encouraged by choreographer and colleague Jamie Jewett to keep an open mind and ear towards what I deemed as Reich’s least compelling forms. With this piece (particularly part two), I was able to hear the “conversation” between composer and listener.

Roman, Antonio. Eero Saarinen: An Architecture of Multiplicity. Princeton Architectural Press, 2004.

Rothenberg David and Marta Ulvaeus, Eds. The Book of Music and Nature. Weslyan University Press. 2001.
This series of essays explores the relationship between music and the natural world. Support material for my practicum and project, Each and Every Voluptuous Curve of Your Westside.

Safdie, Moishe. For Everyone a Garden. M.I.T. Press, 1974.
This text provided me with both historical and contemporary viewpoints and essential information on the experimental housing structure, Habitat 67.

Schelle, Michael. The Score: Interviews with Film Composers. Sillman-James Press, 1999.
An excellent compilation of interviews that offer insight into the world of professional film scoring by established practitioners.

Shapiro, Peter (Ed.). Modulations: A History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound. Charles Rivers Publishing, 2000
This multimedia exploration into the history of electronic music featured a film, a CD series and a book. I used it as a reference guide to some of the music I am currently exploring towards my own project, International Incidental. The book is a comprehensive history as well as an informative documentary survey of sonic experimentation.

Smith, Cam. Buckminster Fuller to Children of Earth New York: Doubleday, 1972
Fulller, the inventor of the geodesic dome, explorer of the “big, comprehensive patterns operating in the universe,” believed that youth, seeing perceptively that the world could be made to work for all humanity, would settle for nothing less. In this poetic essay, Fuller discusses man’s capabilities, wonderfully reflected in the fresh minds of children, and speaks to the child who lives in all people.

Stoller, Ezra. The TWA Terminal. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999.
Eero Saarinen's bird-like TWA Terminal at New York's John F. Kennedy Airport was intentionally designed as a visually seductive showpiece that would capture the public's imagination. Its expressionistic concrete exterior and soaring interior spaces adapted to the needs of contemporary air travel. Stoller's photographs offer a return trip to the terminal at the time of its opening, when sophisticated-looking travelers moved smartly through its majestic spaces. While the terminal's layout and equipment were technically advanced and carefully thought-out, its form was arbitrarily sculptural rather than structurally rational. The TWA Terminal can be seen as a monument to a simpler, more intimate, and more gracious era of commercial flight.

Tanizaki, Jun'ichiro. In Praise of Shadows, Leets Island Books, 1980.
A succinct essay on Japanese appreciation for shadows and nature-based art.

Tati, Jacques. (Dir.) Playtime, Spectra Films, 1967.
Tati’s observation of the modern condition—sterilie environments, lonliness, impersonal corridors, and confusion— in Orly Airport, as choreographically experienced by the bumbling (and not so modern) character of M. Hulot.

Thompson, Robert Farriss. Tango: The Art History of Love. Lecture.13 October 2005. 192 Books, New York.
Through his rhythmic delivery and vast knowledge of how cultures intersect through the merging of musical patterns, Thompson shows us tango not only as brilliant choreography but also as text, music, art, and philosophy of life. Thompson explores a dance that exposes the emotions of love, loss, anger, valour and humour, declaring “it was the fabulous dance of the past hundred years” as he searches for the sources of its explosive strength and passionate expression. He looks into the depths of Argentine culture for tango's genesis and pays tribute to the African and Afro-Argentines, Spanish immigrants and Argentine-born Europeans who gave rise to the steps, the lyrics and the philosophy. As he states, “Danger and violence confronted the world across the whole of the twentieth century. The men and women of the tango kept going, turning outrage into song.”

Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.
The proverbial “rabbit hole” of architectural discourse runs seemingly infinite in this book. I don’t find Tschumi’s designs engaging nor structurally reliable, however, I feel his discourse on the emotional principles that go into buildings and our responsibility to maintain them (both the principles and the structures) is valid.

Ufan, Lee. The Art of Encounter. Turner Press, 2004.
Through a series of essays framed around the 1960s Japanese movement of Monoha (a school of thought that rejects Western notions of representation), Ufan’s writing expresses concerns about the role and meaning of the artist in the late 20th Century.

Ward, Rachel K. and Eveline Notter, curators. Terminal 5. JFK International Airport, New York. 1 October 2004.

Weisman, Leslie Kanes. Discrimination By Design. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
In her chapter on The Spatial Caste System of Discrimination by Design, Leslie Kanes Weisman writes of the dichotomization of cities, metaphorically associated with “man” and civilization, from the wilderness landscape, metaphorically associated with woman and danger “…early cities were founded by priests, kings and heroes as the locus of creation and the symbolic center of the universe. The wilderness that lay outside the security of the city walls was personified as female, profane and savage.”

Westerkamp, Hildegard. Bauhaus and Soundscape Studies - Exploring Connections and Differences (From Bauhaus to Soundscape). San Francisco University, 2002.
Architecture and music correspond to opposite ends of the spectrum: arts of space (architecture, sculpture and painting) and arts of time (music and poetry). Hegel considers architecture the most incomplete of the arts, claiming that it is unable to adequately express the spiritual through the use of materials concerned mostly with obeying the laws of gravity and therefore reduced to providing an external environment with only symbolic significance. Music, on the other hand, is thought to be romantic art, expressing excellence because of its ability to deal with a material as insubstantial as sound—a material which, in turn implies a double negation of exteriority. Space is nullified by the way a body reacts to a mere vibration, which is then converted into a mode of pure interiority.